油气管道内检测技术与数据分析方法发展现状及展望

国家管网集团科学技术研究总院分公司

油气管道;内检测;漏磁检测;超声检测;涡流检测;数据分析方法

Current progress and prospects of in-line inspection techniques and data analysis methods for oil and gas pipelines
LI Rui

PipeChina Institute of Science and Technology

oil and gas pipeline, in-line inspection, magnetic flux leakage testing, ultrasonic testing, eddy current testing, data analysis method

DOI: 10.6047/j.issn.1000-8241.2024.03.001

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【目的】油气管道内检测作为管道完整性管理的关键环节,可为管道事故的预防与合理维护提供科学依据。【方法】为全面了解油气管道内检测技术发展水平及趋势,对检测技术与数据分析方法的发展现状进行了述评。在检测技术发展现状方面,分别对典型的单一原理检测技术、复合检测技术、新型检测技术的检测原理、内检测设备技术水平及工业应用情况进行了分析,并对国内外同类技术发展及应用水平进行了对比。在检测数据分析方法发展现状方面,以应用最广泛的漏磁检测为例,按照数据分析步骤分别对缺陷识别、分类、反演方法进行了梳理。【结果】油气管道内检测技术总体上已进入工业化应用阶段,国外的漏磁检测、超声检测、涡流检测等技术已基本实现常规化、系列化;中国管道内检测技术起步较晚,与国际先进水平尚有差距,但已初步掌握了漏磁检测技术、涡流检测技术,并成功应用于各类油气管道。针对传统内检测技术的适用范围及局限性,已研发出了结合多种检测技术优点的复合检测技术,还探究了以管道轴向应力、管材性能等为检测对象的新型检测技术的可行性。【结论】油气管道内检测技术已取得了显著进展,但仍面临诸多挑战,尤其是微小缺陷的检测能力不足、附加应力检测方法的研究尚不充分。此外,亟需开展海量检测数据智能分析方法的研究,为管道内检测技术的进一步发展提供技术支撑。(图4表5,参[83]
[Objective] In-line inspection of oil and gas pipelines, as a critical component of pipeline integrity management, plays a pivotal role in providing a scientific basis for preventing and undertaking appropriate maintenance measures against pipeline accidents. [Methods] To provide a comprehensive understanding of the current state and future trends in in-line inspection techniques for oil and gas pipelines, this study conducted an industrial review including two key aspects: the current development status in inspection techniques and data analysis methods. In the first aspect, an investigation was made on the testing principles of various types of typical techniques, including single-principle testing techniques, composite testing techniques, and novel testing techniques. Additionally, the technical levels and industrial applications of in-line testing devices were examined. A comparative analysis between China and foreign countries was conducted with a specific focus on the development progress and application levels of similar techniques. The second aspect centered on the widely used magnetic flux leakage testing, presenting a methodology review based on the data analysis approaches, including defect recognition, classification, and inversion. [Results] In-line inspection techniques of oil and gas pipelines have witnessed widespread industrial applications. In foreign countries, several techniques, such as magnetic flux leakage testing (MFLT), ultrasonic testing (UT), and eddy current testing (ECT), have been extensively standardized and serialized. China entered this field at a later stage and still lags behind international advancements. However, China has made progress in successfully implementing MFLT and ECT techniques in diverse oil and gas pipelines by leveraging the expertise. To expand the scope of applications and overcome limitations associated with traditional in-line inspection techniques, there has been the development of composite inspection techniques that combine the strengths of various inspection techniques. Consequently, the industry is endeavoring to explore the feasibility of emerging techniques, particularly those targeting the inspection of pipeline axial stress and pipe performance. [Conclusion] Notable advancements have been achieved in the development of in-line inspection techniques for oil and gas pipelines. However, several challenges persist, requiring enhancement and further research, primarily including the detection capabilities of tiny defects and the methods for detecting additional stress. In addition, there is an urgent demand to focus on intelligent analysis methods for processing the vast amounts of testing data collected during in-line inspections, to provide technical support for the further development of in-line inspection techniques. (4 Figures, 5 Tables, 83 References)
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