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[1]段纪淼,宫敬,张宇,等.多相混输管道蜡沉积研究进展[J].油气储运,,30():241-248.[doi:10.6047/j.issn.1000-8241.2011.04.001]
 Duan Jimiao,Gong Jing,Zhang Yu,et al.Research progress of wax deposition in multiphase mixed transmission pipeline[J].Oil & Gas Storage and Transportation,,30():241-248.[doi:10.6047/j.issn.1000-8241.2011.04.001]

多相混输管道蜡沉积研究进展    ( 打印/导出/复制)
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[摘要]海底管道蜡沉积已成为石油工业面临的一个严峻的流动安全保障问题。系统阐述了国内外蜡沉积的研究成果,着重分析了有关多相流动蜡沉积机理、多相流动蜡沉积实验装置和多相流动蜡沉积动力学模型的研究进展。阐述了建立在“剪切剥离”作用基础上的“老化”蜡沉积机理;介绍了冷板实验、冷指实验、旋转圆盘实验和环道实验装置,着重分析了环道实验装置的优缺点;介绍了 Singh 模型和 Hernandez 模型,在其基础上对油气和油水两相蜡沉积动力学模型进行了描述。根据多相蜡沉积的研究现状,提出多相管流蜡沉积问题的研究应从蜡沉积机理入手,通过实验寻求多相混输过程中影响蜡沉积行为的关键因素,并结合多相流动的规律,建立不同流型下的蜡沉积物理模型。
[中图分类号]TE832[文献标志码] A [doi]A
Duan JimiaoGong JingZhang Yuet alBeijing Key Laboratory of Urban Oil and Gas Distribution Technology,China University of Petroleum(Beijing),Beijing,102249.
[Abstract]

The wax deposition of submarine pipe is obviously a severe fluidity security problem. The paper reviews the previous investigation results in which the mechanism of multiphase flow wax deposition,experiment apparatus and dynamic models are analyzed,and illustrates the mechanism of aged wax deposition which relies on “shear disbonding” function. A couple of experiment setups are introduced including cold plate test,cold finger test,rotating round plate test and loop test,in which the pros and cons of loop test is specifically introduced. The Singh model and Hernandez model are also listed,and based on the two models,the dynamic model is illustrated with regard to both the oil/gas and oil/water wax deposition. Combined with the multiphase flow laws,the paper presents that the study of multiphase flow wax deposition problem should start from the investigation of its mechanism to seek the key factor of affecting the wax deposition process through experiment and to establish the physical model for wax deposition of considering different flow patterns.

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在海洋和陆上管道集输系统中,油气多相混输技术的应用十分广泛。多相混输技术的应用简化了海上和陆上油气混输设施,使油气可直接输送到处理厂集中处理,而不需要提前进行油-气-水分离处理。该技术的应用大幅降低了管道和相应辅助设施的建设投资和运营维护费用,具有较为可观的经济效益。近年来,随着海上油气资源的开发和海底含蜡原油的不断开采,多相流动中的蜡沉积问题已经成为多相混输技术面临的一个新问题。受海底低温环境(深海海床温度大约为 4 ℃)的影响,当原油自油藏中采出并流经海底输油管道时,靠近管壁处的原油温度会降低到析蜡点温度以下,管壁附近溶解在原油中的蜡分子会结晶析出,借助其自由表面能而沉积于管壁或已形成的不流动层上。管输系统中蜡沉积的发生减小了管道的有效流通面积,降低了管道的输送能力,严重时还会造成蜡堵事故。
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