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Oil & Gas Storage and Transportation2023 08
LIU Cuiwei1,HONG Weimin1,WANG Duocai2,ZHI Shujie2,ZHANG Rui1,DUAN Yao1,JING Xiaohan1,LI Yuxing1
In the course of the struggle for the “dual carbon” strategy and energy transformation, the peak shaving realized by the large-scale storage of hydrogen transported via pipeline is very important, while the underground hydrogen storage technology is recognized as the most feasible solution for large-scale hydrogen storage. So far as can be ascertained, no underground hydrogen storage project has been implemented in China. In pursuit of the accelerated development of underground hydrogen storage technology, a review was made concerning the research progress and technical bottlenecks. Meanwhile, a feasibility analysis was performed in terms of geology, seepage, materials and injection-extraction. Ultimately, the following results were obtained: As a result of few geochemical reactions and underground microbial reactions in salt caverns, there are less prominent steel corrosion and a drop in hydrogen production rate, making such salt caverns ideal hydrogen storage structures. Despite the good hydrogen sealing performance of salt rocks, the particularly violent unstable migration of hydrogen in depleted oil and gas reservoirs and aquifer structures may lead to serious hydrogen leakage. Metal, cement and rubber elastomer materials may be deteriorated and result in seepage in the underground hydrogen storage environment, further leading to material failure. Thus, appropriate materials should be selected according to the specific hydrogen storage environment to reduce the material failure probability. Besides, the hydrogen recovery can be enhanced by a lower hydrogen injection rate and reduced molecular weight of cushion gas. Moreover, the measures, such as the adoption of the optimized injection-extraction rate and shut-in time, regular impurity removal and application of biological bactericides, are conducive to improving the purity of hydrogen. Generally, the research results are expected to provide some references for the future development of underground hydrogen storage technology in China. (6 Figures, 93 References)
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LI Jingfa1,LI Jianli1,WANG Yusheng2,ZHAO Jie1,LI Hanyong1,YU Bo1
Hydrogen energy storage and transportation is an indispensable part in the hydrogen energy industry chain. It is also one of the bottlenecks restricting the development of the hydrogen energy industry. Currently, the research and demonstration of hydrogen energy storage and transportation technologies are promoted in an accelerated way at home and abroad. Herein, the application status, key equipment, risk management and standards, bottleneck issues and development direction of four common hydrogen energy storage technologies were discussed through literature research, including the high-pressure gaseous hydrogen storage, low-temperature liquid hydrogen storage, organic liquid hydrogen storage and solid hydrogen storage. The development status, bottleneck issues and development trend of hydrogen energy transportation technologies, such as hydrogen tube trailer transportation, pipeline transportation, liquid hydrogen vehicle and ship transportation and solid hydrogen transportation, were reviewed. Moreover, the current mainstream methods of economic analysis and the development ideas for improving the economic efficiency of hydrogen energy storage and transportation technology in the future were summarized. At last, some suggestions were proposed for the future development of key technologies of hydrogen energy storage and transportation. (1 Figure, 1 Table, 80 References)
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CHEN Yiyu1,LONG Liwen1,HUANG Taiming1,CHEN Xi1,WAN Zhongmin1,YU Bo2
Hydrogen has gained widespread attention due to its advantages of cleanliness, green attributes and renewability. However, there are still certain obstacles to its use as a fuel because of the high costs of storage and transportation, the low volumetric calorific value and the immature core technology of combustion. Hydrogen doping in natural gas is an effective way to achieve the “dual carbon” goal in the gas field, capable of combining the advantages of natural gas and hydrogen, and optimizing the combustion characteristics and emission performance of the fuel. Herein, the global research status of hydrogen-doped natural gas was summarized starting from the research on hydrogen-doped natural gas pipeline transportation technology and gas interchangeability based on the literature research at home and abroad. Meanwhile, the basic research and application status of hydrogen-doped natural gas combustion technology was sorted out, and the development direction of hydrogen-doped natural gas combustion technology was predicted. The research results show that hydrogen embrittlement in pipelines, increased NOx emissions and decreased flame stability caused by hydrogen doping, as well as the unsound laws and regulations, are the main bottlenecks restricting the application of hydrogen doping technology of natural gas at present. Therefore, it is urgent to overcome the problems about the compatibility of hydrogen pipelines, understand the combustion mechanism of hydrogen-doped natural gas, and establish and improve the relevant standards of hydrogen-doped natural gas and its combustion. Generally, the research results could provide technical reference for the basic research and application of hydrogen-doped natural gas combustion technology, facilitating the gas field to achieve low-carbon and sustainable development. (4 Figures, 1 Table, 57 References)
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ZHENG Dukui1,LI Jingfa2,YU Bo2,LIU Cuiwei3,ZHAO Jie2,HUANG Zhiqiang1,ZHANG Yindi1
Hydrogen embrittlement of metal pipelines can be avoided if a polyethylene pipeline is adopted for hydrogen transportation. However, few studies are conducted on the evaluation of compatibility between hydrogen and polyethylene pipeline material, and no systematic research is performed on the lifetime prediction of polyethylene pipelines in a hydrogen environment. In order to predict the effect of hydrogen on the lifetime of polyethylene pipelines, the influence of hydrogen on the performance of polyethylene pipelines was analyzed. Meanwhile, the research progress of the mainstream methods and models for the lifetime prediction of polyethylene pipelines was reviewed, and the lifetime prediction methods used for polyethylene pipelines in the hydrogen environment were discussed. The results show that hydrogen does not have a significant impact on the mechanical properties and permeability of polyethylene pipelines, but the slow crack growth behavior of polyethylene pipelines will be affected in a long-term hydrogen environment, which will affect the service lifetime of polyethylene pipelines. Moreover, a prospect was made for the lifetime prediction method of polyethylene pipelines in the hydrogen environment, as well as its development direction, so as to provide a reference for accelerating the application of non-metallic pipelines in hydrogen transportation. (4 Figures, 1 Table, 66 References)
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SHAN Ke,DUAN Pengfei,JIN Youping,YANG Guang,LIU Jianhui
In order to ensure the safe operation of hydrogen-blended gas pipelines and maintain their structural and functional integrity, it is urgent to establish an integrity management plan for the hydrogen-blended gas pipelines. Based on the characteristics of hydrogen-blended gas pipelines, the key technologies for risk-based hydrogen-blended gas pipeline integrity management were proposed by drawing on the experience of conventional gas pipeline integrity management, mainly including data collection and integration, identification of key areas, quantitative risk assessment, risk control measures, and effectiveness evaluation. Meanwhile, the parameter weights, evaluation criteria and control measures that need to be corrected in each key technology were pointed out to prevent the occurrence of failure modes such as hydrogen corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement and hydrogen induced cracking. Thus, a digital system for integrity management of hydrogen-blended gas pipelines was developed based on the above five key technologies, to provide a systematic solution for the integrity management of hydrogen-blended gas pipelines. (7 Figures, 21 References)
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DUAN Pengfei1,ZHANG Jinsheng1,CHANG Xiwen2,HAN Hui2,LIU Cuiwei2,LIU Jianhui1,LI Yuxing2
In order to investigate the diffusion characteristics of hydrogen enriched natural gas after its leakage from pipelines in the utility tunnel, the numerical model of aperture leakage of pipelines in the utility tunnel was established by CFD Fluent transient simulation. Meanwhile, the effects of leakage aperture direction, hydrogen blending ratio, pressure and leakage aperture diameter on the temporal and spatial distribution of combustible gas volume fraction in the utility tunnel were analyzed. The results show that different leakage aperture directions have a great influence on the shape of the distribution curve of the combustible gas volume fraction in the utility tunnel, but different curves are in a similar trend, with the maximum value of the combustible gas volume fraction reached the coordinates of the leakage aperture. When the combustible gas diffuses to the opposite direction of the ventilation, two stepwise declines occur in the curve. But when the combustible gas diffuses to the same direction of the ventilation, the curve has a second peak value. The factors, such as hydrogen blending ratio, pressure and leakage aperture diameter, only affect the value range of the combustible gas volume fraction curve but not the trend. For natural gas with a hydrogen content not more than 20%, 12 times/h of emergency ventilation can ensure that the volume fraction of combustible gas in the tunnel is below the explosion limit after an aperture leakage with a hole diameter less than 12 mm occurs in the 0.4 MPa pipeline or an aperture leakage with the hole diameter less than 7 mm in the 1.6 MPa pipeline. The research results could provide theoretical guidance for the safe operation of hydrogen enriched natural gas pipelines in the utility tunnel. (8 Figures, 1 Table, 26 References)
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BAI Zhang1,HAN Yunbin1,WANG Zhi2,LI Qi1,XU Hui2,HAN Yunyi1,WANG Shuoshuo1
Through hydrogen production based on wind-solar power generation, variable renewable energy can be converted into high-quality hydrogen. However, the instability of wind and solar energy also leads to the frequent start-up and shutdown of the electrolyzer, as well as the low rate of resource utilization. Herein, the power allocation and cooperative operation strategy and the capacity optimization method for the wind-solar hybrid hydrogen production system were proposed based on the characteristics of wind-solar power generation in combination with the operational performance of alkaline electrolyzer (AEL) and proton exchange membrane electrolyzer (PEMEL) for hydrogen production. The case analysis shows that wind-solar power generation has reduced the impact of resource volatility on the electrolyzer, the average load rates of AEL and PEMEL are 91.08% and 39.90% higher than that of a single wind power scenario. In addition, the hydrogen production capacity is increased by 6.1% by adopting the power allocation strategy, and the start-up/shutdown times of the PEMEL electrolyzer are reduced. Compared with individual AEL and PEMEL hydrogen production system, the hybrid hydrogen production system after capacity optimization has its hydrogen production capacity increased by 7.4%, with the unit hydrogen production cost reaching 35.3 yuan/kg. The research results could provide a reference for the efficient and cooperative operation of wind-solar hybrid hydrogen production system. (10 Figures, 3 Tables, 27 References)
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LI Jun1,2,WANG Ruimei3,ZHANG Yanhua1,2,WANG Dongdong1,2,LIU Xiaohan1,LI Shigang3,LI Shuang1,2,SHI Yixiang1,2
Hydrogen enriched natural gas (HENG) transportation through pipeline networks is one of the effective approaches to address the challenges of hydrogen storage and transportation at this stage. Thus, it is a hot spot to research the efficient separation and purification of hydrogen at the terminals of HENG pipeline network at present. In order to achieve the rapid separation of hydrogen and natural gas in the HENG and overcome the pulverization of direct hydrogen adsorbents, a series of modified lanthanum-nickel-based direct hydrogen adsorbent materials were prepared using the vacuum induction melting method, and the direct hydrogen adsorbent particles were fabricated by granulating the adsorption alloy powder. Then, SEM, XRD and ICP detection were conducted with three kinds of adsorption alloys, namely, LaNi4.3Al0.7, LaNi3Al1 and LaNi4Al1 respectively. The LaNi4.3Al0.7 alloy was selected preferably to make the direct hydrogen absorbent. On this basis, tests were carried out for the hydrogen adsorption capacity of the prepared direct hydrogen adsorbent under different pressures and temperatures, as well as the decay of adsorption capacity at 80 ℃. Besides, a direct hydrogen adsorption purification process at moderate temperature was developed, which successfully realized the separation of hydrogen and natural gas in HENG under the simulated conditions of pressure and hydrogen blending ratio. The results show that the purity of separated hydrogen could reach 99.9% and above. The direct hydrogen adsorbent has almost no decrease in adsorption capacity after 3 000 cycles and shows no pulverization after the cumulative operation over 900 hours. Generally, these findings lay a solid research foundation for the “hydrogen into end-user households” science and technology demonstration project. (6 Figures, 2 Tables, 21 References)
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LI Junlei1,3,2,ZHANG Chenglong1,3,2,ZHANG Yonghai1,3,2,ZHOU Wenjing1,3,2,WEI Jinjia1,3,2,3,2,4
For hydrogen as a new form of energy, there is still a certain gap in the marketization of its application technologies such as combustion. As a kind of efficient combustion equipment, the jet burner can effectively improve the thermal utilization rate of energy. In this paper, the combustion process of hydrogen in the jet burner was simulated, the flame characteristics under different oxygen supply ratios were analyzed, and the changes in combustion temperature, flame height and morphology, and pollutant concentration under different air-fuel ratio conditions were compared. Then, the 21-step hydrogen combustion mechanism with 10 components was adopted in the simulation, and thus sensitivity analysis and finite element simulation were performed for the key components in pure hydrogen combustion. The results show that: the peak value of hydrogen combustion temperature decreases with the decreasing of oxygen supply. The flame height decreases significantly with the decreasing of the oxygen supply in case of the air-fuel ratio lower than 1, and the flame height gradually tends to be stable when the air-fuel ratio is greater than 1. Besides, the total amount of the pollutant NOx produced increases with the increase in oxygen supply ratio, but its concentration distribution will be affected by other factors such as flame morphology. In this research, a suitable range of air-fuel ratio was proposed for the jet burner from the perspective of improving the thermal efficiency, so as to provide a reference for the combustion utilization of hydrogen energy. (10 Figures, 2 Tables, 24 References)
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ZHOU Fen,SUN Yingkai,LIU Guangyi,ZHANG Yusheng,LI Yongjian
To achieve the dual carbon goal, the decarbonization of gas is an irresistible trend for the development of urban new energy in the future. Hydrogen, as a promising zero-carbon energy, is expected to be widely applied in urban gas in the future. Herein, a combustion experiment system of hydrogen gas stoves was established based on the commonly-used atmospheric burner. Then, a combustion experiment was conducted to study the influence of the variation of structural parameters, including the diameter, spacing and angle of the burner port, and the primary air coefficient on the performance indicators such as NOx and H2 concentration in flue gas, the ignition noise and energy efficiency. Thus, the feasibility of a pure hydrogen gas stove was verified, and according to the experimental results, suggestions were put forward for the structural parameter design of the hydrogen gas stove. The study shows that it is not required to significantly change the structure of the conventional natural gas stove, and stable combustion of hydrogen in the gas stove can be realized only if the structural parameters of the burner are designed properly. Besides, the flue gas produced by hydrogen combustion contains fewer harmful components compared with conventional natural gas. Such results could provide reference to the design and promotion of hydrogen gas appliances. (6 Figures, 4 Tables, 19 References)
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KONG Yingying1,CUI Jitong1,HAN Hui1,LIU Cuiwei1,DUAN Pengfei2,HAN Jinke2,LI Yuxing1
The standardization of hydrogen pipeline transportation technology is an important link to ensure the high-quality development of the hydrogen energy industry and the safe transportation of hydrogen. However, few standards are available for the current hydrogen pipeline transportation technology in China, and no perfect standard system has been formed for long-distance hydrogen pipelines. Hence, a comparative analysis was performed for the current situation of hydrogen pipeline construction at home and abroad, as well as the current technical standards for hydrogen pipeline transportation. Meanwhile, the similarities and differences between domestic and foreign technical standards for hydrogen pipeline transportation were discussed from the aspects of the pipe and connection process, the safe flow rate in the pipeline, and the pipe wall thickness design. The results indicate that: the low-strength material is recommended for the hydrogen pipeline, and the performance coefficient of the material can be introduced in the wall thickness design of hydrogen pipelines. The domestic and foreign standards have few contents on the requirements for the repair of hydrogen pipelines. Thus, the repair requirements for natural gas pipelines can be referred to, provided that the safety risk will not be increased. Generally, the research results are conducive to widely drawing the relatively mature foreign experience of standard systems, capable of providing reference to the application and standard setting of hydrogen pipeline transportation technology in China. (2 Figures, 3 Tables, 25 References)
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CHAO Jiaming1,2,YU Xiaoling3,2,WANG Zihua3,2,JIANG Zhiyuan3,2,ZHANG Guobin1,2,SHU Yue4
Severe pipeline vibration will affect the safe operation of hydrogen compressor equipment. In terms of the violent vibration of the primary gas intake pipeline of a variable operating conditions hydrogen compressor with a 60% gas load, the gas flow pulsation and vibration of the primary gas intake pipeline were tested under 40%~100% gas load conditions. Also, gas flow pulsation analysis and pipeline modal analysis were carried out by modeling according to the actual pipeline size and routing. Based on the test and simulation results, it was concluded that the violent vibration of the primary gas intake pipeline was caused by the mechanical resonance at the pipeline point with second-order natural frequency. Meanwhile, the targeted pipeline vibration reduction measures were put forward to reduce the vibration value of the primary intake pipeline of the compressor to an acceptable range. The vibration causes analysis and control method are of great guiding significance for the design, operation and vibration monitoring of the pipeline system of hydrogen compressor under variable working conditions. (11 Figures, 4 Tables, 21 References)
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About Journal
Administrator: China National Petroleum Corporation
Sponsor: PetroChina Pipeline Company
Editor and Publisher: Oil & Gas Storage and Transportation Journal Agency
Address: Oil & Gas Storage and Transportation Journal Agency, No.51, Jinguang Rd., Langfang City, Hebei Province, 065000, P.R. China
Post code: 065000
Tel: +86(316)2176173
Publication No: ISSN 1000-8241,CN 13-1093/TE
Periodicity: Monthly
Book Size: 16-mo
Founded in: 1977




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