油气管道重大突发事件应急响应对策

1. 中国安全生产科学研究院·重大危险源监控与事故应急技术国家安全监管总局安全生产重点实验室;2. 中石油管道有限责任公司

油气管道;重大突发事件;应急响应;应急任务;应急准备

Emergency response countermeasures to the major incidents of oil and gas pipelines
WU Xuan1, LI Jing1, HU Jingmin2, SHENG Yong1, GUO Zaifu1

1. China Academy of Safety Science and Technology//Key Laboratory of Major Hazard Control and Accident Emergency Technology, State Administration of Work Safety; 2. PetroChina Pipeline Company Ltd.

oil and gas pipelines, major incidents, emergency response, emergency task, emergency preparedness

DOI: 10.6047/j.issn.1000-8241.2019.12.003

备注

在油气管网高速发展过程中,管道易发生泄漏、爆炸等事故,提升油气管道重大突发事件的应急处 置能力尤为重要。以青岛“11·22”事故为例,基于事故发生、发展等基本情况,梳理出事故应急处置过程 中的主要时间节点、关键环节,建立了政府和企业应对管道泄漏事故的并行应急任务框架,总结了政府和 企业在事故预防、应急准备、监测预警、应急响应、事故善后处置与恢复 5 个阶段应承担的任务与采取的措施,分析了在应急处置过程中存在的主要问题,指出了青岛“11·22”事故中应对措施存在的不足之处。 从法律法规、应急组织、运行机制、应急平台及应急策略 5 个方面提出了改进中国油气管道重大突发事件应急能力的对策,旨在为中国油气管道重大突发事件应急能力的提升提供借鉴。(表 2,参 21)

In the high-speed development process of oil and gas pipeline networks, pipelines tend to suffer the accidents ofleakage and explosion easily, so it is quite important to improve the emergency disposal ability to the major incidents of oiland gas pipelines. In this paper, the Qingdao “11·22” accident was taken as an example. Based on the basic situations of theaccident, e.g. occurrence and development, the main time nodes and key links in the process of emergency disposal werepointed out. Then, a parallel emergency task framework of governments and enterprises for pipeline leakage accident wasestablished, and the tasks and measures that governments and enterprises shall take in five stages of accident prevention,emergency preparedness, monitoring and early warning, emergency response and aftermath disposal and rehabilitation weresummarized. Finally, the main problems in the process of emergency disposal were analyzed, and the defects in the measurescoping with the Qingdao “11·22” accident were pointed out. What’s more, the countermeasures to improve the China’semergency ability to major incidents of oil and gas pipelines were proposed from fives aspects of law and regulation,emergency organization, operation mechanism, emergency platform and emergency strategy, so as to provide the referencefor improving China’s emergency ability to major incidents of oil and gas pipelines. (2 Tables, 21 References)

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