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Oil & Gas Storage and Transportation2021 12

SHUI Biyuan1, XUE Luning1, YANG Yufeng1, MA Yunbin1, QIU Miaomiao2, ZHAO Boxin2


At present, the biggest safety risk and accident source of pipeline systems can be attributed to the lack of sensing ability of buried pipelines to a large extent. For this reason, a method of laying pipelines in underground space was put forward, so that the buried pipelines could be observed, monitored and accessed directly with the present detection, monitoring and sensing technologies. The sensing ability of critical pipeline sections can be enhanced fundamentally by the full range data acquisition and intelligent monitoring technology, and further the safety level of the pipelines can be improved greatly. By referring to the laying mode of municipal rainwater and sewage pipelines and urban utility tunnels, the underground space structure of semi-prefabricated reinforced concrete U-shaped pipe culvert with cover plate was proposed, where the pipelines are installed at the bottom of the pipe culvert with the support of metal bracket or concave cement pipe holder. Meanwhile, the intelligent video monitoring, optical fiber sensing, combustible gas sensing, external detection of pipeline defects or stress and other fixed or movable sensing means should be provided in the underground space. In addition, the risk factors of pipeline laying in underground space were analyzed preliminarily, and it was conservatively estimated that the overall risk could be reduced by more than 34%. Moreover, the economy of pipeline laying in underground space was also analyzed. It is expected that the construction cost of pipeline sections laying in underground space will be increased by about 7.5% to 25%, but the pipeline operation and maintenance cost, as well as the accident loss, will be reduced by more than 30%. Therefore, it is suggested that the relevant feasibility study and engineering tests should be performed in the pipeline idustry in future. (5 Figures, 22 References)

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LI Qiuyang1, ZHAO Minghua1, ZHANG Bin1, WEN Wen1, WANG Lele1, ZHANG Xueqin1, CHEN Lin2


Oil and gas pipelines are one of the main means for oil and gas transportation over the world, and the development trend of their planning and construction is mainly affected by the development of oil and gas resources, as well as the national and regional energy policies. By quantitative and qualitative information mining, the global energy consumption structure and pipeline construction development in 2020 were sorted out, the current operation status of global oil and gas pipelines was analyzed, and the construction and development trend of global oil and gas pipelines in major regions of the world under the new situation was predicted. In the future, the construction of global oil and gas pipelines will be mainly affected by three factors: economy, politics and environment. It is predicted that the overall construction of global oil and gas pipelines will tend to be stable in recent years. Affected by the international environment, the construction progress of transnational pipelines is uncertain to a large extent, and fewer transnational pipelines can be completed and put into service on schedule. Besides, the pipeline construction in each country mainly depends on the economic development situation thereof. However, due to the dual impact of the economic downturn under the global COVID-19 pandemic and the energy transition under the guidance of “carbon peaking and carbon neutrality”, it is expected that the local pipeline construction in the world will be concentrated in Asia-Pacific Region in the future. Meanwhile, the European and American countries and regions will explore to construct new hydrogen-mixed natural gas transportation pipelines or reconstruct existing gas pipelines for hydrogen-mixed natural gas transportation. (5 Figures, 3 Tables, 31 References)

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LYU Yang1, CHAI Demin2, LI Xiaoyu1, ZHANG Fuqiang1, LIU Luoqian1, ZHANG Hanwen1, HUANG Qiyu1


Wall sticking of condensate oil always has influence on the pipeline flow assurance in surface gathering and transportation. Presently, the research methods and adhesion mechanism for wall sticking of condensate oil are not clear. Thus, the systematic investigation was performed for the progress of research on the interfacial behavior and adhesion of crude oil at home and abroad, and the current mature adhesion theories and models were combed and compared. Besides, the influencing factors of the interfacial behavior and adhesion of crude oil were discussed, and the current applicable experimental equipment and test analysis methods for interfacial behavior were summarized. In particular, the research on the interfacial behavior and adhesion of crude oil by molecular dynamics simulation was also discussed. Finally, some thoughts and enlightenment were given for the study on the wall sticking mechanism of crude oil, which will be of great significance to further reveal the wall sticking mechanism of condensate oil in low-temperature gathering and transportation. (2 Figures, 3 Tables, 95 References)

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SHUAI Jian1, WANG Wei1,2, MEI Yuan1, JIN Guoqing1


In order to meet the development requirements of the data age, clustering, co-occurrence and emergence analysis was performed for the relevant literatures concerning pipeline integrity management at home and abroad in 2000–2020, and the knowledge graph of pipeline integrity management was constructed. Then, on the basis, the characteristics of research on pipeline integrity management were summarized with the research direction in this field predicted. The results show that the research scope of pipeline integrity management in China is gradually expanded and the research level is gradually deepened, which is internationally advanced. Generally, the keyword cluster is formed at the time close to that at abroad, but the research topics are quite different. The emerging words in recent years show that the research trend of pipeline integrity management in China will focus on the risk assessment, safety and high consequence areas, while the international pipeline integrity management in the next few years will be mainly developed in the direction of simulation, mechanics and failure possibility. Thus, the research results will provide some guidance to the research and development direction of pipeline integrity management in the future. (6 Figures, 5 Tables, 30 References)

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YANG Baolong1, REN Wu1, GAO Haikang1, ZHANG Xinjian1, MU Yunting2


Due to the national requirements for keeping the surveying and mapping geographic information confidential, the sharing of long-distance pipeline coordinate data is always a difficulty for the application of informatization of the pipeline operators. Meanwhile, due to the release of the Provisions on the scope of state secrets in petroleum and petrochemical industry in 2013, great controversies were generated on the confidentiality classification of pipeline coordinate data. Hence, through the analysis on the recent cases for information security and the in-depth interpretation of the relevant national and industrial policies, the problem on confidentiality classification of pipeline coordinate data was clarified. In view of the pain points and business requirements in the current application of long-distance pipeline coordinate data, a technical scheme based on GCJ02 coordinate system was developed with reference to the relevant policies and technologies of the Ministry of Natural Resources of the People’s Republic of China, and the management countermeasures were proposed in terms of the sense of security and confidentiality, map data and service, and business application, so as to meet the national regulatory requirements and the urgent needs of pipeline operators to deepen the application. (2 Figures, 1 Table, 27 References)

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CAO Jianshu1, JI Baoping1, JI Weike1


As X80 pipelines are applied in large scale, the safety of long-term service of long-distance oil and gas pipelines has attracted much attention. In order to solve the problem of detecting the inner surface crack defects of pipelines, experimental research has been conducted for the laser ultrasonic nondestructive detection method characterized by noncontact and high precision, which was also applied to the inner surface crack defect detection of X80 pipelines. The laser ultrasonic signals in the areas of X80 pipeline specimen with/without cracks and the laser ultrasonic based B-scan detection and imaging were obtained through experimental measurement. Meanwhile, the influence of crack defects on laser ultrasonic signal were analyzed. The research results indicate that: the inner surface crack defects of pipelines can be detected and accurately located through the laser ultrasonic based B-scan. Hence, the laser ultrasonic based B-scan is valuable for promotion and application in the nondestructive detection of pipelines. (9 Figures, 21 References)

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XU Guangli1,2, ZHAN Linyong1, WANG Ran1, CAI Liangxue1,2


The precise correlation between the pipeline defects and inspection signals is a key issue in the analysis of echo signals in ultrasonic inline inspection. However, the sensitivity of acoustic and electric signals in the transmission, propagation, and reception during the inspection brings great challenges to this problem. Analyzing the direct piezoelectric effect of Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) through numerical simulation is an effective way to study the characteristics of the inspection signals. Therefore, a finite element analysis model of the probe was established with the COMSOL software, the echo data were extracted from the simulation results of sound field in the probe array as the initial excitation load of the model for simulation, and the accuracy of the finite element model was verified by comparing with the experimental results of ultrasonic inline inspection. The results show that: The error between the simulation result and the measured data of the ratio of the maximum peak values of the surface echo and the primary bottom echo is 1.36%, indicating that the new model has a relatively high accuracy. The defect depth of the inner wall surface has a significant influence on the amplitude of the second peak in the PZT electrical signal spectrogram, and an effective correlation can be established between them. In addition, based on the simulation results of electric signals, the maximum valley point of the surface echo and the maximum peak point of the primary bottom echo can be extracted in the time-domain diagram of echo as the characteristic points, and the maximum error of the inspected pipeline wall thickness is 3.95%. Generally, the research results could provide reference for the localization of ultrasonic inline inspection tools. (11 Figures, 4 Tables, 22 References)

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SHEN Guangji1, LIU Kaifeng1, ZHAN Yiwei2, HE Liu2


With the rapid development of national infrastructures, public corridors such as electricity, traffic and energy are increasing day by day, and the AC interference corrosion of buried pipelines has attracted much more attention. The solid state decoupler based drainage technology has been widely used for the AC interference protection of pipelines. However, due to the inadequate in-depth research on the solid state decoupler based drainage technology and no application standard issued in the domestic and foreign industries, no effective inspection methods and evaluation indicators could be referred by the field inspectors. Combined with many years of field inspection experience, the evaluating indicators, such as the AC interference voltage, AC drainage current, AC impedance, DC leakage current, grounding resistance, were summarized and defined, and the appropriate inspection methods and parameter requirements were put forward, which could effectively inspect and evaluate the AC drainage and DC isolation functions of the solid state decouplers. Generally, the research results can effectively guide the field inspectors to organize the drainage of solid state decouplers of the buried pipelines, which is of important guiding significance for improving the inspection and evaluation of oil and gas pipelines. (1 Figure, 1 Table, 19 References)

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XUAN Wenbo1, WANG Ting2, DAI Lianshuang3, WANG Fuxiang1


The crack-like defects of oil and gas pipelines, especially the crack-like defects on the inner surface, are the main factors leading to pipeline failure. However, due to the limitation of the existing inline inspection technology, the cracklike defects are difficult to detect through inline inspection. Herein, various eddy current inline inspection tests of crack-like defects were performed by setting up an eddy current high-speed automatic testing device to detect the crack-like defects in the pipe body and girth weld at different defect depths based on the electromagnetic eddy current technology. In addition, the eddy current signal characteristics of crack-like defects were analyzed, and the feasibility of applying electromagnetic eddy current technology to the inline inspection of crack-like defects was verified. The test results show that the crack-like defects of oil and gas pipelines at different locations can be distinguished by the impedance signal of defects at a higher inspection speed. Meanwhile, the signal characteristics become more obvious with the increase of defect depth, but attenuate with the increasing of the liftoff value of defects. In addition, the greater signal-to-noise ratio of defect signal can satisfy the requirements for accurately identifying the crack-like defects. (10 Figures, 1 Table, 22 References)

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DONG Jianyu1, CHEN Jiaqing1, JI Yipeng1, WANG Chunsheng2, SHANG Chao2, ZHANG Ming2


In order to explore the actual change in the particle size distribution of the dispersed phase water droplets of the water-in-oil emulsion in the electric field demulsification process, and obtain the optimal electric field parameters according to the change rules of the particle sizes, a dynamic test evaluation system for high-voltage electric field demulsification was set up with a self-developed compact tubular high-voltage electric field coalescer, a G600 focused beam reflectance measurement instrument and a high-frequency/high-voltage pulsed AC power supply. On the basis of testing and verifying the effectiveness of the evaluation system, tests of evaluation for the impact of the electric field intensity, frequency, duty cycle and water content on the performance of the compact tubular high-voltage electric field coalescer were conducted systematically. The test results indicate that: for the prepared white oil emulsion with a water content of 30%, the optimal combination of electric field parameters for demulsification comprises an electric field intensity of 1.2 kV/cm, a frequency of 1 500 Hz and a duty cycle of 45%. With the water content of the white oil emulsion changed to 20% and 40% successively, the optimal electric field intensities obtained are 1.65 kV/cm and 1.05 kV/cm, and the optimal frequencies are 2 000 Hz and 1 500 Hz respectively, which indicates that the optimal electric field intensity decreases gradually with the water content of the emulsion increasing. Meanwhile, the optimal frequency also presents a trend of decreasing. The self-developed test evaluation system and the evaluation method for high-voltage electric field demulsification can accurately and effectively characterize the change rules of the particles size distribution of the dispersed phase in the emulsion. (17 Figures, 2 Tables, 22 References)

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MA Chenbo, LIU Xiangdong, LIU Renwei, CAO Yang, HUANG Zhe


Three-phase separator is an important device used in the development of offshore oil and gas fields to separate the oil, gas and water, for which proper pressure setting value is very critical. Herein, three-phase separators of A and B offshore platforms were taken as the object of research, and a dynamic simulation model of process was established based on the field operation conditions with K-Spice software. Specifically, the internal pressure change of the separators was simulated under two conditions, i.e. the gas outlet pipeline blocked and the control valve on the gas outlet pipeline of the separators stuck, and comparison was also made with the pressure setting value recommended by the domestic and foreign industry specifications. The results indicate that: For the setting value of high-high pressure for shutdown is low, the sticking of control valve at the gas outlet of separator may result in the shutdown of oil fields, and under the condition that the gas outlet is blocked, the problem concerning the non-independence of primary protection measure (close the shutoff valve) and the secondary protection measure (open the safety valve for pressure relief ) may occur. Therefore, a new method of pressure setting was proposed, that is, to determine the minimum setting value of high-high pressure for shutdown according to the fluctuation value of internal pressure of the separator with the control valve on the gas outlet pipeline stuck, and to determine the minimum value of the setting pressure of the safety valve according to the pressure change of separator with the gas outlet blocked. The new method for pressure setting of three-phase separators can avoid the problem of “production shutdown” caused by the sticking of control valve of the separator and ensure the independence of the primary and secondary protection measures of separators. (7 Figures, 4 Tables, 24 References)

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ZHAO Shangxin


Automatic welding technology is widely used in the large-diameter and high-grade steel pipeline projects, but no mature automatic welding technology system is available at present. According to the construction characteristics of automatic welding, with reference to practical experience in automatic welding of long-distance pipelines, key points of technical preparation for automatic welding were put forward in terms of design, pipe, welding, nondestructive testing and construction organization, focusing on improving construction efficiency and ensuring the construction quality. In addition, the current situation of personnel, technical reserve and informatized welding quality management was analyzed, and the reasonable measures were proposed to provide references for the follow-up promotion of automatic welding technology in pipeline projects, improve the welding efficiency and take full advantages of the technology. (25 References)

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DIAO Yu1, LIU Zhaoyang2, SUN Yong1, LI Qiujuan2, YOU Zebin1, MA Ning3


In order to further promote the regional management mode of oil and gas pipelines, evaluate the adequacy of existing protection measures for the typical stations and enhance the risk control capability thereof, the safety integrity level (SIL) of the functional loops of the station safety instrumentation system (SIS) was evaluated, by calculating the occurrence frequency of residual risks with the layers of protection analysis (LOPA) method, based on the comprehensive hazard and operability analysis (HAZOP). LOPA analysis was performed on the low-risk point of compressor inlet flow of one compressor station in China-Russia Eastern Gas Pipeline. The results show that: only the environment impact of the risk point without considering the protection of compressor body can meet the risk tolerance criteria, but personnel casualties, economic loss and reputation effect do not meet the risk tolerance criteria. The auto-stop protection of highhigh interlock for shaft vibration, displacement and others of compressors should satisfy the requirements of SIL2, and the risk reduction capability should not be less than 464. Generally, LOPA analysis can effectively solve the deficiency that the residual risk cannot be quantified in HAZOP analysis, and evaluate whether the existing layer of protection can reduce the risk to the tolerance standard, so as to provide experience reference for SIL rating of relevant natural gas compressor stations. At the same time, some management suggestions were put forward for the shortcomings of LOPA analysis and SIL rating in oil and gas pipeline industry. (3 Figures, 5 Tables, 19 References)

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XIONG Yi1, GAO Ping1,2, ZHAO Xiao1,3, ZHAO Likang1


In order to effectively evaluate the risks of emergency repair of long-distance gas pipeline leakage, a dynamic AHP-based risk assessment model was established based on the Analytic Hierarchy process (AHP), with the risk indexes classified into five categories, and the updating algorithm of membership degree of various risk indexes was also described. Meanwhile, by analyzing the risks of emergency repair in the leakage accidents of gas pipelines, a dynamic AHP-based risk assessment evaluation index system was established, and the secondary indexes were classified. In addition, the dynamic evolution of risks faced in the overall construction period of emergency repair was analyzed with the dynamic AHP-based risk assessment model based on a leakage accident of Sichuan-East Gas Pipeline. The results show that: the changes of the risk indexes during emergency repair can cause the changes of the membership degree of the AHP underlying index and the index weight of each layer, which will further result in the risk change in the entire emergency repair process. Therefore, the model could effectively and dynamically evaluate the risks of emergency repair of gas pipeline leakage. Thus, the research results could provide basis for the emergency repair of natural gas pipeline leakage thereof. (6 Figures, 4 Tables, 20 References)

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CUI Wei1, YANG Liangliang1, XIA Rong1, SUN Jiaqing2, FAN Xiaowei3


The Belt and Road works actively for promoting China’s international energy cooperation. Hence, the safety evaluation of offshore gas transport channels with reference to the actual Belt and Road cooperation practice has an important theoretical and practical value. Taking into account the construction practice of the Belt and Road, the nationallevel natural gas cooperation, and the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the international natural gas supply pattern, research on the safety of offshore gas channels was performed with the evaluation model indicators determined based on the five connectivity indexes along the Belt and Road, the national gas agreement and the COVID-19 pandemic, and solution made by PP-RAGA-K-means algorithm. The research results show that the factor of “the Belt and Road” has a positive impact on the safety of China’s offshore gas channels, and the national offshore gas channels that are located along the Belt and Road and where strong national strength is present are the safest. Conclusively, the research results provide a scientific basis for China to develop international cooperation and the relevant departments to formulate safety measures for offshore natural gas transportation. (7 Figures, 3 Tables, 32 References)

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About Journal
Administrator: China National Petroleum Corporation
Sponsor: PetroChina Pipeline Company
Editor and Publisher: Oil & Gas Storage and Transportation Journal Agency
Address: Oil & Gas Storage and Transportation Journal Agency, No.51, Jinguang Rd., Langfang City, Hebei Province, 065000, P.R. China
Post code: 065000
Tel: +86(316)2176173
Publication No: ISSN 1000-8241,CN 13-1093/TE
Periodicity: Monthly
Book Size: 16-mo
Establishment Year: 1977